Managing Wind on a 100-Floor Building

Up until the rapid increase in urbanisation, superstructures such as 100-floor+ buildings were a luxuriant sight. Today, fuelled by a dearth of land area and the demands imposed by multi-millionaires and billionaires for high-rise buildings that offer the experience of being “on top of the world,” 100-floor skyscrapers are commonplace structures. One can find super-tall, skinny buildings in almost every metropolitan city in the world. But, designing such colossal edifices means overcoming several challenges of which wind-load seems to be the most predominant.

Wind Resistance: A Vital Consideration in Constructing 100-Floor Super-Structures

Notwithstandingthe demand for buildings with beanstalk proportions, a major architectural challenge in constructing such structures is that the taller a building, the more likely it is to sway at the top owing to high wind loads.

For instance, on a standard breezy day, a building that has 100 floors may sway a couple of inches at the top, according to consulting engineers Rowan Williams Davies and Irwin, but once each year can be experienced strong wind forces that travel 50 miles per hour and can move a superstructure with 100 floors about half a foot. But that’s not all, at least once every 50 years, winds with even greater velocities, around 100 miles per hour, are capable of making the tower deflect as much as even two feet!

Now, not only such swaying movements can prove to be a safety hazard, but they can also make the occupants of such superstructures woozy. This is especially a serious matter of consideration if the 100-floor building in question is a residential one. After all, not many people want to feel like they’re living on a giant pendulum!

As a result, architects and construction engineers include dampening and enveloping systems onto such superstructures that can act as shock absorbers and keep the occupants safe from the high velocity of wind forces that blow at such enormous heights – weight per square unit area of a building decreases with increasing height.

While designing buildings that have 100 floors and above, three kinds of wind load need to be taken into account – Uplift Wind Load or the upward pressure of the wind forces on horizontal structures such as the roof, Shear Wind Load or horizontal pressure on the walls and vertical structures, and Lateral Wind Load or horizontal wind pressure that can overturn the building by affecting its ballast.

Overcoming the Wind-Load Challenge with Glazed Glass Facades

One construction material that has gained popularity as the protective shield of 100-floor edifices has been glass. However, it is important to keep in mind that all glass structures and installations should be designed to offer a wind-resistance of at least 0.5kN/m² (500 Pa). Glass glazing systems; triple-glazing systems to be precise are designed to withstand the forces of the wind.

Glass envelopes or glazed glass facades are strong enough to withstand some of the harshest weather elements, be it sun’s heat, rain, or high-velocity winds. Moreover, since such glass facades do not rust or weather, environmental effects will not damage even the aesthetics of huge structures such as 100-floor buildings.

The load-bearing capabilities of such glazed glass facades depend on various components – required thickness of the glass, framing members, and size of brackets – all of which will be dictated by the wind loads in the area. For this, advanced engineering methods such as wind tunnel testing and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) are used. These methods help in accurate prediction of the wind pressure – critical in designing complex 100-floor superstructures.

If the inter-story drifts are high owing to high wind and seismic loads, the façade systems may require customisation such as wider vertical joints or stiffer façade profiles.

Let’s consider the example of two such 100+ floor superstructures optimised using glass facades for wind-resistance. The Port Baku Tower 2 located in Azerbaijan where each of the two towers measure 240m and 100m in height respectively. This super-huge shopping facility is constructed using complex facade geometry – a unitised curtain wall that is curved in the southern face of the building creating a spectacular skylight over the entrance area. In total, 12 different façade typologies have been included for protection against wind forces. The bespoke façade designs had to be created owing to differential wind pressure in the podium area (4.0 kPa) and the main tower areas (-7.5 kPa). Accommodation for even inter-story drifts were made.

Wind-proofing 100-Floor Buildings with AIS Glass

For providing a strong foundation for 100-floor superstructures, AIS Glass provides a comprehensive range of glass facades that are multi-functional – providing resistance against the sun’s extreme heat and harmful UV rays, rains, and high-velocity wind forces. They also provide optimal natural lighting and maintain ideal indoor temperatures throughout the year. So, what are you waiting for? Enveloping 100-floor buildings against the impact of high-velocity wind forces is easy with AIS Glass! Get in touch today and get an expert consultation.


Managing Glare on a 99 Floor Building

Ever since glass has gained ground as the principal construction material in the world of architecture and design, the sky has been the limit. A combination of undeniable aesthetic appeal and powerful functionality has enabled glass to enjoy a unique sort of supremacy.

The delicate, visual feel of transparency and water that glass exudes, makes it the building material of choice for optimum daylighting. As stated by Le Corbusier, “Architecture is the masterly, correct, and magnificent play of masses brought together in light,” this relationship between architecture and light continues to influence us today.

Daylighting: Finding the Right Balance

One of the prime design concerns of an architectural project is creating an atmosphere conducive to the inhabitants of a space, while maintaining its aesthetic value. A good part of this process involves lending a space the right degree of daylight. After all, as said by the famous architect, Louis Kahn, “A room is not a room without natural light.”

Any architect worth their salt understands the impact of adequate exposure to natural light on the productivity and overall well-being of a space’s inhabitants – residential or commercial. When it comes to sky-rise buildings with as many as 99 floors, the stakes are even higher.

Multi-faceted challenges await architects and interior designers involved in daylight autonomy design solutions out of which managing glare seems to be the trickiest to tackle. An overabundance of natural light can have detrimental effects on the building and its occupants; think sunburn, reduced visibility, and fading. The answer, as always, lies in moderation. An optimum degree of glare or a ‘balance of luminance’ on the 99th floor is key to the occupants’ well-being. Given the reduced sensitivity of the human eye at high luminance, the range of luminance or glare must ideally remain between 150 to 200 cd/m².

Moreover, daylight autonomy metrics can only be improved through dynamic fenestration strategies since the conventional methods of tinting windows or installing overhangs will essentially block out natural light in the process of reducing glare. Designing enlarged windows, on the other hand, will defeat the purpose of optimal glare management.

This calls for a carefully crafted solution that fuses aesthetics with specialised functionality. There is a clear winner in many a designer’s books – smart glass.

Dealing with Glare: The Smart Way

Conventional glare control strategies centred on static glazing methods. However, the on-demand economy has brought with it the emergence of dynamic technologies such as the smart glass, whose opacity levels can be controlled with the switch of a button.

Simply put, smart glass, also known as switchable glass, dynamic glass, or electrochromic glass, is a type of processed glass manufactured using the Suspended Particle Device (SPD) technology. Designed especially for the purpose of building enveloping, smart glass is developed using a thin film laminate of rod-like nano-scale particles suspended in a liquid (polymer base), and subsequently placed between two panes of glass or attached to one layer.

When an electric current is passed through the glass pane(s), the liquid crystals align themselves in a straight line, allowing light to pass through (the glass becomes transparent). On blocking the passage of electric current, the liquid crystals become scattered, thus enhancing opacity levels. In this way, living or working in a sky-rise building, especially the 99th floor is a whole lot easier with smart glass’s anti-glare properties.

Unmatched Comfort on Demand

The variable light transmission properties of smart glass bring a world of unmatchable benefits to the table that makes it an ideal pick for lofty buildings. A prominent advantage is the control over daylighting that it offers. You no longer need to deal with the woes of choosing one for the other (natural light or reduced glare). With smart glass, you can enjoy natural light without compromising on your vision by controlling its opacity levels through a remote. For 99-floor buildings that receive no dearth of natural light, smart glass paves the way towards moderation.

Besides being in control of your space’s ambience, smart glass gives you complete control over your privacy. For times when you must enjoy moments of solitude, simply switch off the electric current and enjoy unprecedented privacy. For times when you’re feeling more outdoorsy, go alfresco by switching the smart glass on and make the most of the sky-high view the 99th floor has to offer.

What’s more, smart glass also tops the charts in terms of environmental sustainability. Its controllable heat-transmission properties regulate the internal temperature such that the need for mechanical heating or cooling and artificial lighting is significantly reduced, naturally leading to lower energy consumption and energy bills.

And most importantly, electrochromic glass is highly durable with no visible loss of efficiency found even following years of field testing. As a result, you can get rid of your worries regarding the maintenance of blinds or curtains. A one-time investment is all it takes to enhance the aesthetics and functionality of your spaces.

So, be it the famous Burj Khalifa, Shanghai tower, sky-rise apartments with 99 floors, hospitals, universities, corporate offices, or any other sky-scraping superstructure capable of making you crane your neck in awe, a switch to smart glass is a one-stop-solution to deal with the many challenges surrounding the maximisation of daylighting. Creating open, comfortable, and welcoming spaces that contribute to productivity, energy conservation, and overall well-being has never been this easy!

Choose AIS Swytchglas For Your 99-Floor Building

To beat the heat and light in style, embrace the revolutionary AIS Swytchglas – the key to managing glare on the 99th floor! Our smart glass takes less than 10 microseconds to activate, blocks up to 50% of the light in its “Off” mode, works between temperatures from 0 degrees to 55 degrees Celsius, can last for a minimum of 20,000 cycles, and is available in a variety of colour tints.

With AIS Swytchglas, you get the freedom to control the amount of heat and light entering into your space, even if it’s the 99th floor of a skyscraper simply by using a remote control.

You can install AIS Swytchglas in doors, partition walls, windows, skylights, facades, and a whole lot of other places. For managing glare, make the smart move today with AIS Glass! Get in touch for a consultation today and discover how our premium suite of solutions can serve your needs.


An Architect’s Guide to Glass Façade

Skyscrapers in modern cities, whether residential or commercial, tend to glamorize themselves by way of the owner’s stylistic choices. Today, one of the most preferred ways to instantly enhance the style quotient of a tall building is a glass façade. Apart from lending a contemporary yet open look to a modern-day building, glass façades also offer sound and heat-insulation, making them a favourite of architects. Bespoke cladding, challenging geometrical designs, and striking outlooks of glass facades ensure protection against irregular winds and seismic conditions as well. As an architect, you might be loosely familiar with the basics of a façade. To enrich you more, here is a valuable guide about the intricacies of glass facades.

Types of Glass Facades

Curtain Wall

Curtain walls are non-load bearing curtain-like structures attached to the floor of the building in which the façade is to be incorporated. Such facades have to support only their weight and not the dead load weight imposed by the building. Connections exist between the curtain wall and the building’s columns and floors so that the weight of the wind can be transferred from the façade. These types of facades are both aesthetically pleasing and exceedingly functional, providing resistance to wind and water infiltration. Resistance to seismic forces and a thermal barrier is also provided by such glass facades.

Curtain walls can be customised according to the need of the building and the design choice of the client. It can take the form of many interesting patterns and styles.

Storefront Wall

This is another non-load bearing façade type designed primarily for ground floors. It spans between the ground and the roof of the building above it and offers optimal thermal and sound insulation when constructed using specialised glasses. It is a cost-effective option and can be customised according to the client’s desires.

Framing Systems

Stick Systems

Vertical support mullions form the frames for these types of glass facades. These extrusions are usually entirely constructed away from the site of installation. Later, the mullions are taken to the location of construction and glass panels are fit into them. Typically, the vertical extrusions are also supported by horizontal frames, which in turn, make the glass-framed from all sides.

Usually, the mullions used in the stick systems are made using materials like aluminium, steel, concrete, or wood. Depending on the stylistic choice, any of these materials can be used. Structured silicone, toggle-locked, bolted, or pressure-capped stick systems are installed in mid-rise or low-rise buildings because of their high costs.

Unitized System

As the name suggests, such glass facades are usually made in the factory and then carried to the site of installation. This essentially means that unitized systems come ready to be installed at the building. The continuous system can span multiple floors in tall buildings. Vents and windows can also be installed in unitized-framed facades. Since the entire framing system is constructed in a factory with controlled climatic conditions, features like moisture and air-resistance can easily be incorporated into them. Mobile street cranes, tower cranes, or monorails are usually used to carry the completed systems to the site.

Semi-Unitized Systems

Semi-unitized systems consist of the best of both stick systems and unitized systems. Glass facades of this type are encased in a stick made metal cassettes. The glass is in-filled in the cassettes at the factory. The individual cassettes are later carried to the site of construction and are assembled with other cassettes on-site. The bonding of one metal case with another happens with gaskets, making the assembly and installation both fast and safe. These types of systems require the application of structural silicone during the installation process.

Building Performance

The purpose behind the installation of glass facades is not merely their aesthetic value. Glass facades can add other features to the building.

Regulated Energy Consumption

To make a building more energy-efficient, the kind of glass used for a façade should be selected carefully. Energy-efficient glass made by AIS Glass is a good choice. While providing optimal insulation, energy-efficient glass also maximises the amount of light entering the building. Building-integrated photovoltaic can also be used to preserve energy.


High-quality acoustic glass can be used in construction where a quiet environment is desired. Sound Transmission Class and Outdoor Indoor transmission class indices can be used to evaluate the acoustic performance of buildings with glass facades.


While getting glass facades, security is often the primary concern. The best way to ensure safety is using toughened glass like AIS Stronglas or similar solutions with multipoint locking systems. Additional security measures can also be taken in framing or installation.

At AIS Glass, we manufacture high-quality glasses meant to create contemporary, stylish, and pragmatic facades for modern buildings. We have all kinds of glass solutions available and can customise different glass types according to your needs. Contact us today to enjoy a wide range of interior and exterior glass solutions!